Feminising Cosmetic Surgery

Feminising Cosmetic Surgery

Rhinoplasty or Nose Surgery

Nose Augmentation is type of cosmetic procedure that is very common among Asians and non-Caucasians to correct a flat nose with a round bulbous tip and flaring nostrils. The aim is to build an aesthetically pleasing nasal bridge with an elegant projection and well defined nasal tip, and at the same time narrow the flaring nostril base. An implant is usually used. The implanted material is biocompatible and extremely safe. Incisions are made inside the rim of the nostrils. Soft tissues of the nose are then separated from the underlying structure to create the appropriate space for nose implant projecting the nasal tip and increase the height of the nose. The procedure works equally well on Caucasians and can give you a beautifully defined bridge with correctly proportioned nostrils and septum.

 

Forehead Augmentation

Surgery Overview:

Forehead Augmentation or Forehead Contouring Surgery  is a cosmetic surgery involving a patient’s forehead area from the upper eyebrow to the scalp line and from one side to the other of the head. When a patient undergoes a forehead contouring surgery, the earlier mentioned facial area is made slightly smoother and less protrusive.

An incision begins at the hairline. Following this, surgeons usually use bone cement to perform the augmentation. If the surgeon locates bony irregularities and protrusions in the brow area, these will be smoothed out as well. The incision will be closed using medical staples to give the patient an aesthetically pleasing and smooth appearance.

Operation time:
The duration of the surgery usually takes about 2-3 hours.

Care after surgery:
Forehead dressing is place on at the end of surgery and is removed the next day. In some cases, a drain may be removed (not commonly) and it is removed the next day also. There is some mild pain afterward but much of the forehead skin will be numb for awhile. Pain is easily controlled by pills. There will be some swelling afterwards which is driven downward by the dressing and gravity which affects the eyes and upper cheeks. It is most evident by two days after surgery and is largely gone within seven to ten days after surgery. Absorb-able sutures are used in the scalp so there is no need for suture removal.

Recovery period:
Generally, the recovery time after this procedure is about 5-10 days. Quick recovery is possible because the incisions are all made in the scalp area. Patients are able to do their chores in a few days and go back to work within a week. Others can return to working out in two weeks after surgery.

Risks and complications:
Complications arising from a forehead contouring surgery are minimal since bone cement is used instead of silicone implants. The only one that may come up is contouring irregularities. However, most surgeons minimize this risk by sculpting and smoothing out the bone cement using specialized instruments.

Types of anesthesia use:
The procedure uses general or local anesthesia

Preparation prior to Surgery 

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Forehead Reduction

Surgery Overview:

Forehead reduction surgery or hairline lowering surgery can be used to reduce an excessively high hairline or large forehead in both men and women. The forehead reduction procedure can be performed at the same time as a Forehead Lift (Browplasty), or alone.


In this procedure, an incision is made at the hairline. A portion of the scalp that does not contain hair can then be removed which results in making the hairline appear lower. The hair follicles near the incision will eventually grow through it and hide the scar.


Operation:

The procedure usually takes about 2 hours to perform.

Care after surgery:

After the forehead reduction procedure, there will be some bruising and swelling. Ice compresses can be used to control the swelling. Your forehead will be loosely wrapped overnight, which further helps to minimize swelling. A drain might be used to help get rid of the fluids and that can collect in the tissues. The individual might also experience numbness and slight pain, both of which will eventually subside and can be controlled with medications. You will be able to shower and shampoo your hair within two days, or as soon as the bandage is removed

Recovery period:

Individuals vary on their recovery time. Many patients are healed enough to go back to work after a week. After one week, your sutures will be removed. Most patients return to work in 7-10 days after their hairline lowering surgery, but some patients return to work even sooner. Most of the visible signs of surgery should fade completely within about three weeks. There may be some shedding of the hair in the front of the scalp within 2-4 weeks after surgery. The hair will come back after several months. Dr.  Tanongsak suggests that patients apply 5% Minoxidil to the front of the scalp starting 2-6 weeks before surgery and resuming it for 3 months after surgery.

Risks and complications:

Some risks associated with forehead reduction are fluid accumulation, scarring, hair loss at the incision site, and infection. Any hair loss should grow back within a couple of months, however, and antibiotics are generally prescribed to help thwart infections. Unsightly scarring is usually covered by the new hair growth. However, in some cases the individual can opt to have an additional hair graft done in order to cover up the scars.

Types of anesthesia use:

The procedure usually uses General anesthesia
Preparation prior to Surgery

    • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
    • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests.
    • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
    • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.

Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Cheek Bone Augmentation

Overview of the surgery:

Cheek Bone Augmentation is a facial cosmetic procedure procedure that improves the facial structures. Normally the surgeon will make incisions inside the mouth where the cheek joins the upper gum and insert the implant through the cuts. By inserting the implants over the cheek bones they will build ‘naturally’ on your existing bone structure. There is also an alternative technique that involves inserting the implant through a cut in the lower eyelid. An advantage of inserting the implant through the mouth is that it does not usually leave a visible scar.

Operation time:
The procedure takes about 1-2 hours to perform.

Care after surgery:
Stay on a liquid diet until the incisions are healed. Post operative analgesics maybe prescribed, although patients report minimal pain. You may be instructed to apply cold compresses over your face for 20 minutes, every 4 hours, for the first two days after surgery. Keep your head elevated during your recovery. Sleep on your back with your head elevated at least for the first 8 days. Sleep on two pillows to keep your head elevated or use a wedge-shaped foam pillow. You Will able to read or watch television after surgery. Do not wear any facial makeup or eye makeup for the first two weeks. Avoid strenuous activity, including exercise and sex. You must avoid any activity that increases the risk of hitting.

Recovery period:
The recovery takes one to two weeks. Most people are back to work within a week or two. Do not carry or lift heavy objects for 3 weeks. Light aerobic exercise is allowed just 3 weeks following surgery. Return to normal aerobic exercise after 6 weeks.
Risks and complications:
Risks can include infection, blood loss, fluid collection, movement of the implant and scarring. Cheek implants may also alter the symmetry of your face.

Types of anesthesia use:
The procedure is under general anesthesia.

Preparation prior to Surgery

    • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
    • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests.
    • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
    • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.

Avoid taking any medications

     such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

 

Cheek Bone Reduction

Cheek bone reduction will make the face look smaller and more feminine. An oval or heart shaped face is very desirable amongst Asian women.

In zygomatic (cheek bone) reduction, both ends are cut and the intervening bone segment (zygomatic bone) is moved inward, backward and downward. So, cheek prominence is depressed and the patient can get small, shallow face and smoother, smarter impression. The procedure is performed through an incision inside the ear in front of the ear canal, and from inside of the mouth, thus leaving no visible scars. This is then secured by stainless steel wires. The cheekbone heals very rapidly. In a week’s time, it will be firm and stable.

Operation time:
This entire process approximately takes 4~5 hours.

Care after surgery:
You will have to take it easy and keep your head elevated while resting and sleeping for 7-14 days after the procedure. Your face will look very swollen in the first 3 days. But, as the days go on the swelling and bruising will dissipate. Any sutures you may have will be removed 7-10 days after surgery.

Recovery period:
You may go back to work 1-2 weeks after surgery.

Risks and complications:
The possible risks include: bleeding and prolonged swelling, infection, asymmetry or over resection, injury to facial nerves
the facial nerve to forehead can be injured.

Types of anesthesia use:
The procedure usually uses General anesthesia.

Preparation prior to surgery:
Get lab testing or a medical evaluation. Take certain medications or adjust your current medications. Stop smoking well in advance of surgery and avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests. X-rays may be taken to evaluate the individual’s bone structure.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Jaw Angle Augmentation

Overview of the surgery:The mandibular angle is the prominence of the lower jaw in front of the lowest part of the ear. This prominence of the lower jaw frames the lower face.  Just as high prominent cheek bones are associated with beauty, a corresponding and proportionately prominent mandibular angle is equally desirable.

Mandibular angle implants are typically inserted through an incision from inside the mouth next to the wisdom teeth. The implant of the size and shape that the surgeon has selected is then inserted through these incisions into a pocket created in the tissue. In rare cases, a small titanium screw is used to attach the implant and the bone. The incisions are closed with sutures that the body later absorbs.

Operation time:
Operative duration vary, but generally 2-3 depending on the extent of surgery

Care after surgery:
You will be told to keep your head elevated and as still as possible for a couple of days after surgery to help minimize swelling. Avoid strenuous activity, including sex and heavy housework, for at least two weeks (walking and mild stretching are fine); avoid alcohol, steam baths, and saunas for several months. Above all, get plenty of rest and allow your body to spend its energy on healing.

Recovery period:
Many patients are able to return to work within about a week after undergoing a facial implant procedure. Some other activities may need to be postponed for a longer period of time.

Risks and complications:
Complications from mandibular angle augmentation are infrequent and usually minor; however, individuals vary greatly in their anatomy, their physical reactions, and their healing abilities. The outcome of surgery is never completely predictable. Complications may include hematoma (a collection of blood under the skin that must be removed by the surgeon), infection, and reactions to the anesthesia. You can reduce your risks by closely following your surgeon’s instructions before and after surgery.

Types of anesthesia use:
The anesthesia usually consists of I.V. sedation or general anesthesia

Preparation prior to surgery:

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Jaw Reduction

Overview of the surgery:Jaw Angle Reduction  is also called Reduction Angleplasty is done to individuals who have wide jaw line or square face. It reduces the width of the lower face and change a square face to an oval one. This procedure can enhance the masculine features, in men while in women it can give an impression of strength and confidence.  In some, however, the jaw can be disproportionately wide as compared to the rest of the face or zygomas and mandibular angles are overly prominent that upsets the balance of the face. This is one reason for aesthetic Mandible Angle Reduction. The incision of mandible angle reduction is commonly done inside the mouth which means the scar will be invisible.

Operation:
The procedure is performed about 1-2 hours.

Care after surgery:
Swelling and skin discoloration are common and usually will subside within a week or two. Stitches will be removed after about seven days. When the operation is carried out from the inside of mouth, gargle your mouth with mouthwash for at least 10 days. Keep incision region clean and dry. Apply prescribed antibiotic ointment to staples and stitches. Dry thoroughly with gauze. Keep ice compresses on the surgical region continuously for the first 48 hours. Do not use hot dryer, when dry up your hair. Avoid steam baths and saunas for several months. Start with clear fluids and increase as tolerated. Avoid foods that are chewy for the first 2 weeks. No chewing of hard foods or tough foods for 2-4 weeks after surgery. You are to stay on a light diet. No alcohol and no smoking for 2 weeks if possible as they increase swelling; or have only in moderation. You will be asked to keep your head slightly elevated for a few days. Rest quietly in bed with head raised on 2 – 3 pillows. During the first 48 hours bed rest is recommended. During the next 3 to 5 days, you should restrict your normal activities, no housework and no physical labor. During the first 5 days after surgery, it is most important not to engage in any activity which will elevate the blood pressure and possibly increase bruising, swelling and bleeding. Walking is permitted as tolerable. Do not lie face down for one month. When bending down, bend at knees, not with head down.

Recovery period:
Expect to feel tired for 7 – 10 days after surgery, especially after anesthetics. Don’t rub or scratch surgical region for at least 2 weeks. Wound dressing should be done twice a day for 7 days, after tape is removed. Take antibiotic for 14 days after surgery. Do not take any vitamin E and aspirin (or acetyl salicylic acid) for 14 days after surgery, because they can increase your tendency to bleed and prescription pain medications will be given for pain relief.

Results:
We guarantee quality service and satisfying results of the operation but in cases of surgical corrections, patient can assure a free of charge revision. Please see before and after photos of Dr. Tanongsak patients in the Photo Gallery (photographs showed are with patient’s consent).

Risks and complications:
All surgical procedures carry some risk. The risks of undergoing buttock implant surgery include infection, unsatisfactory results, excessive bleeding, adverse reaction to anesthesia, and the need for second, or sometimes third, procedures. Risks are minimal, although, as with any surgery, complications can arise.

Type of anesthesia use:
This surgery is performed under General Anesthesia.

Preparation prior to surgery

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests. X-rays may be taken to evaluate the individual’s bone structure.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Chin Augmentation

Overview of the surgery:Chin Augmentation is a surgical procedure to reshape or enhance the size of the chin. It may be done either by inserting an implant or by moving or reshaping bones.
Incisions are typically made in one of two locations: either beneath the chin within a natural or crease or inside of the mouth where the gum and lower lip meet. To build up a receding chin with an implant, the surgeon will made the incision then gently stretch the tissue to create a space into which the implant is then inserted. To reduce a prominent chin, the surgeon will made the incision and then sculpt the bone to the desired shape and size.Operation time:
Chin augmentation surgery may take anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour.Care after surgery:
You will feel some discomfort and soreness, which you can easily control with pain medication.
You may feel some numbness in your chin for up to 3 months and a stretching sensation around your chin for 1 week. Most of the swelling will be gone by 6 weeks, depending on the type of procedure you had. You might have to stick to a liquid or soft diet for at least a day or two. You’ll probably have the outside bandage removed within a week of surgery. You may be asked to wear a brace while you are sleeping for 4 – 6 weeks. You can resume light activity the day of surgery. You should be able to return to work and your usual activities within 7 – 10 days.Recovery period 
The recovery takes one to two weeks. Most people are back to work within a week or two.Risks and complications:
The most common complications of chin augmentation are: bruising, movement of the implant, swelling. Other possible complications include: damage to the teeth, loss of sensation. Rare side effects include: blood clots, infection that can sometimes require removing the implant, pain that does not go away, numbness or other changes in skin sensation. You should discuss all the risks with your cosmetic surgeon.Type of anesthesia use:
Local Anesthetic (while you are awake)Preparation prior to surgery

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Chin Reduction

Overview of the surgery:Chin reduction is a type of procedure that reduces the size of the chin by shaving down the bone through an incision made in the lower gums. Chin reduction surgery begins with the surgeon making an incision inside the mouth (near the lower lip) or under the chin. Using specialized instruments, the surgeon detaches the bone at the tip of the chin and then reshapes and removes the excess bone to properly proportion the contour. The tip is then repositioned with the remaining section of chin and held together using wires and plates. The incisions are sutured to complete the procedure.

Operation time:
The surgery duration is approximately 2-3 hours

Care after surgery:
In cases where the incision was made inside the mouth, regularly use antiseptic mouthwash during the first week to keep the wound clean. If incision is located underneath the chin, clean the external wound twice each day after being released from hospital. Keep wound dry for 2-3 days. Liquid diet such as soups, shakes, etc. for first few days. Eat soft food for 7-10 days.

Recovery period:
Most patients are able to go back to work within a week after surgery. However your surgeon may suggest you take 1-2 weeks off work. A soft diet is recommended for about a week and strenuous activities should be avoided for up to 2 weeks. Any situation which might involve facial contact should be avoided for up to 6 weeks.

Risks and complications:
All surgeries have inherent risks. With chin reduction surgery, the patient may experience swelling for several weeks or months while the bone heals. Infection is a less common risk to weigh when considering chin plastic surgery. Another potential side effect to consider following chin reduction surgery is small nerve damage. If small nerve damage occurs, this can cause the patient to experience numbness in the lower lip and chin. Additionally, complications can arise from adverse reactions to anesthesia, which can affect a patient’s respiratory system.

Types of anesthesia use:
Chin Reduction procedures are undertaken using general anesthetics.

Preparation prior to surgery:

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

V-line

Overview of the surgery:V-line surgery allows for reduction the chin to a more slender and oval shape without increasing its length. The surgery also reduces the overly strong bone flanking each side of the chin, thus transforming the more masculine U shape to a sharper and more feminine V shape.

The chin line is excised into a smooth line. The chin end can be brought together without touch of the nerve. The protruding parts in both sides of the mandible are excised.
The narrowed chin end produces the wholly oval V-line face type.

Operation  time:
The surgery may be performed 3-4 hours depending on the extent of the operation.

Care after surgery:
You will be told to keep your head elevated and as still as possible for a couple of days after surgery to help minimize swelling. Avoid alcohol, steam baths, and saunas for several months. Above all, get plenty of rest and allow your body to spend its energy on healing.

Recovery period:
You may be able to go back to work at least 1-2 weeks after the surgery. Strenuous activities should be avoided, including heavy housework for at least 2 weeks but walking and mild stretching is fine.

Risks and complications:
Complications may include hematoma (a collection of blood under the skin that must be removed by the surgeon), infection, asymmetry and reactions to the anesthesia. You can reduce your risks by closely following your surgeon’s instructions before and after surgery.

Type of anesthesia use:
The procedure uses General Anesthesia

Preparation prior to surgery
Gets lab testing or a medical evaluation Take certain medications or adjust your current medications. Stop smoking well in advance of surgery and avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performedduring consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests. X-rays may be taken to evaluate the individual’s bone structure.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

Adam’s Apple Shaving

Overview of the surgery:Adam’s apple Shaving is a surgical procedure in which the thyroid cartilage is reduced in size by shaving down the cartilage to achieve a more feminine appearance. The procedure can be done as an out patient surgery under local anesthesia or under a general anesthesia. The incision is usually 2-3 cm in length. The surgeon makes a horizontal incision at the highest crease of the skin on the throat below submental (chin) area then the vertical muscles in the throat are separated to expose the cartilage.  The thyroid cartilage is reduced, usually by shaving in the most prominent area and the rim of its upper border. The thyroid cartilage contouring is a delicate process and need to be done meticulously especially for those who have calcified (hard) cartilage due to aging process.

Operation time:
The feminization of the Adam’s apple (trachea shave) takes about 1 hour

Care  after surgery:

  • During the first 24- 48 hours, patient may experience some varying degrees of swelling and temporary mild voice weakness that includes lowering of pitch and hoarseness following surgery.
  • Apply ice pack to the surgical site for a couple of days to gradually decrease swelling. Swelling will subside over 1-2 weeks and bruising resolves in 1-3 weeks.
  • Patient must rest voice following surgery. Avoid shouting or singing for 2 weeks after surgery.
  • The procedure leaves a prominent red scar that lightens over 1-3 months.
  • Patient will have stitches often supplemented by surgical tape or butterfly bandages for a few days.
  • Wound dressing is performed daily. Stitches and tape must be kept dry at all times.
  • Patient must avoid electrolysis immediately around the incision until surgeon recommends it to continue.
  • Application of antibiotic ointments, vitamin E oil, or other topical preparations is prescribed by some surgeons to aid healing process.

Recovery period:
A piece of gauze will cover the incision for the first 2 or 3 days after Adam’s apple reduction. For about 7 to 10 days you will probably have a burning sensation and some difficulties when swallowing or talking. Patients who underwent Adam’s apple removal report that the post op sensation is very similar to a simple sore throat, including a reduction in the ability to speak loudly.

Risks and complications:
Complications include permanent change in vocal quality which is the result of too much revision or over dissection of the cartilage that may injure the vocal cords, infection may also occur and hematoma.

Types of anesthesia use:
Adam’s apple removal is done under general anesthesia, with other procedures of facial feminization surgery, or alone.

Preparation prior to surgery:

  • Assessment of the medical history (any allergies, serious medical condition and all medications taken both prescribed and non-prescribed), physical examination, and laboratory tests will be performed during consultation.
  • Blood and urine samples will be collected for routine preoperative laboratory tests. X-rays may be taken to evaluate the individual’s bone structure.
  • Smoking must be avoided for about 3-4 weeks prior to surgery, as nicotine interferes with circulation and will greatly affect healing process.
  • You will likely to be asked to stop drinking alcohol, a week before the surgery and throughout your recovery period.
  • Avoid taking any medications such as hormones, anticoagulants, anabolic steroids and supplements at least 4-6 weeks to prevent complicating medical factors prior to surgery. Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding.

 

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